In 1997, she experienced an accidental injury that resulted in the loss of her left eye and soon after, in 1998, her husband died. One of the gifts through the suffering was the privilege of experiencing and receiving my own theory through the care from my husband and loving nurse friends and colleagues.” This book has been translated into Portuguese and Japanese. In this book, she leads the reader through thought-provoking experiences and the sacredness of nursing by emphasizing deep inner reflection and personal growth, communication skills, use of self-transpersonal growth, and attention to both caring science and healing through forgiveness, gratitude, and surrender. Therapeutic Communication Techniques Quiz. Watson’s 10 carative factors are: forming humanistic-altruistic value systems, instilling faith-hope, cultivating a sensitivity to self and others, developing a helping-trust relationship, promoting an expression of feelings, using problem-solving for decision-making, promoting teaching-learning, promoting a supportive environment, assisting with gratification of human needs, and allowing for existential-phenomenological forces. Therefore, her model and concepts within the model are used in many nursing curriculums today. Within assisting with the gratification of human needs, Watson orders the needs. The Watson Caring Model is recommended as a guide to nursing patients with hypertension, as one means of decreasing blood pressure and increase in quality of life. If one is to explore educational philosophies of nursing schools, almost all make some reference to caring. He, human is viewed as greater than and different from, the sum of his or her parts.” A human’s health includes a high level of overall physical, mental, and social function; a general adaptive-maintenance level of daily function; and the absence of illness or the process of efforts that will lead to an absence of illness. Watson describes nursing as a human science, with the major focus being the process of human care for individuals, families, and groups. She is a fellow of the American Academy of Nursing. (Ed. The ten primary carative factors with their corresponding translation into clinical caritas processes are listed in the table below. Caring is the essence of nursing. 49) Jean Watsons theory was first published in 1979. One of the gifts through the suffering was the privilege of experiencing and receiving my own theory through the care from my husband and loving nurse friends and colleagues.” These two personal life-altering events contributed to writing her third book, Postmodern Nursing and Beyond. Watson devised 10 caring needs specific carative factors critical to the caring human experience that need to be addressed by nurses with their patients when in a caring role. Personal Life Watson formulated the theory of human caring in 1979 that outlined various caring factors associated with the nursing process. Watson’s hierarchy of needs begins with lower-order biophysical needs or survival needs. This refers to the individual’s frame of reference that can only be known to that person. Watson's Theory of Human Caring is a middle range nursing theory. Watson attended high school in West Virginia and then the Lewis Gale School of Nursing in Roanoke, Virginia, where she graduated in 1961. As carative factors evolved within an expanding perspective, and as her ideas and values evolved, Watson offered a translation of the original carative factors into clinical caritas processes that suggested open ways in which they could be considered. Watson, J. This book was reprinted in 1985 and translated into Korean and French. Jean Watson ardently and quickly progressed through her nursing education earning her bachelor’s degree in nursing in 1964, a master of science in nursing in psychiatric and mental health nursing in 1966, and a Ph.D. in educational psychology and counseling in 1973, all from the University of Colorado at Boulder. The Philosophy and Science of Caring addresses how nurses express care to their patients. Explore American Sentinel University’s Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Master of Science in Nursing and Doctor of Nursing Practice programs, which help nurses at all levels of their careers become caring, capable nurses who help patients improve their lives. Patient Positioning: Complete Guide for Nurses, Registered Nurse Career Guide: How to Become a Registered Nurse (RN), NCLEX Questions Nursing Test Bank and Review, Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database, Nursing Diagnosis Guide: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing. Mullaney, J. Intervention is the implementation of the care plan and data collection. What is Watson’s Theory of Transpersonal Caring? Watson’s text is the only comprehensive and accessible collection of instruments for care measurement in clinical and educational nursing research. - Jean Watson Jean Watson is a psychiatric and mental health nurse, who innovative views on nursing helped shape her nursing theory of caring. (1979). And in 1999, she received the Fetzer Institute’s National Norman Cousins Award in recognition of her commitment to developing, maintaining, and exemplifying relationship-centered care practices. After Jean Watson concluded her doctoral degree, she has served in both faculty and administrative positions in the School of Nursing faculty, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver. Jean Watson’s Philosophy and Science of Caring addresses how nurses express care to their patients. It is undeniable that technology has already been part of nursing’s whole paradigm with the evolving era of development. (3) Effective caring promotes health and individual or family growth. There are many reasons to consider in becoming a professional nurse, but compassion is often a trait required of nurses. The higher order psychosocial needs or integrative needs include the need for achievement, and affiliation. Her theory Philosophy and Science of Caring focuses on empathy and caring as an essential part of the nursing process and includes the nurse as a beneficiary of that caring. She does not define the fourth metaparadigm concept of environment but instead devised 10 caring needs specific carative factors critical to the caring human experience that need to be addressed by nurses with their patients when in a caring role. She received six honorary doctoral degrees from universities in the United States and three Honorary Doctorates in international universities, including Göteborg University in Sweden, Luton University in London, and the University of Montreal in Quebec, Canada. According to Watson, caring is central to nursing practice, and promotes health better than a simple medical cure. She has been a founder and a member of the Board of Boulder County Hospice, and numerous other collaborations with area health care facilities. Through her practice, she observed the effect of authentic caring on patients and the resultant health outcomes. The model can be used to guide and improve practice as it can equip healthcare providers with the most satisfying aspects of practice and can provide the client with holistic care. A. Jean Watson Nursing Theory Essay. Watson’s background is in nursing and psychology. 4. However, the “looseness” of Watson’s framework can also be a drawback in instances when something more structured is needed for the care of a patient. Jean argues that nurses should respect maintenance, nurture, assist, understand and care for patients. In providing the enumerated clinical Caritas processes, the nurse becomes an active co-participant with the patient. According to her theory, caring can be demonstrated and practiced by nurses. Running head: NURSING THEORY EVALUATION Jean Watson: The Theory of Human Caring Malgorzata T. Guzda NUR 410 Professional Roles, Issues and Nursing Theories 5/25/2014 Introduction Jean Watson was born in southern West Virginia and grew up during the 1940s and 1959’s surrounded by extended family and community oriented environment. She has received several research and advanced education federal grants and awards and numerous university and private grants and extramural funding for her faculty and administrative projects and scholarships in human caring. For more detailed information: Watson’s Philosophy and Science of Caring, © Copyright 2020 Alice Petiprin, Nursing-Theory.org. Watson graduated from the Lewis Gale School of Nursing in 1961, and then continued her nursing studies at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The nursing model also states that caring can be demonstrated and practiced by nurses. Creating a care plan helps the nurse determine how variables would be examined or measured, and what data would be collected. She was the youngest of eight children and was surrounded by an extended family–community environment. Watson has authored 11 books, shared in authorship of six books, and has written countless articles in nursing journals. Her theory is based on a form of humanism and has its origins in metaphysics (philosophy of being and knowing) (McCance, Mckenna, Boore 1999). In 1966, she earned a master’s degree, and a Ph.D. in 1973, all from the University of Colorado. She believes that a holistic approach to health care is central to the practice of caring in nursing. Higher Order Psychosocial Needs or Integrative Needs. Watson’s model makes seven assumptions: (1) Caring can be effectively demonstrated and practiced only interpersonally. In McEwen, M. and Wills, E. The carative factors are logically derived from the assumptions and related to the hierarchy of needs. One advantage to Watson’s Philosophy and Science of Caring theory is that it creates a generalized framework for nursing that can be applied to a variety of situations and patients. JEAN WATSON’S THEORY OF HUMANCARING 5. “The allowance for existential-phenomenological forces” became “allowance for existential-phenomenological spiritual forces” (in 2004 Watson website), “Opening and attending to spiritual-mysterious and existential dimensions of one’s own life-death; soul care for self and the one-being-cared for”, Dr. Jean Watson. Lower Order Psychophysical Needs or Functional Needs. She served as Dean of Nursing at the University Health Sciences Center and was the President of the National League for Nursing. Caring is the essence of nursing and connotes responsiveness between the nurse and the person; the nurse co-participates with the person. It also places the patient in the context of the family, community, and culture. She first developed her “carative factors” as a guide to direct nurses in their everyday practice. Jean Watson • Born in West Virginia, currently living in Colorado. This is for the reason that taking care of the patients’ needs is its primary purpose. It is transmitted by the culture of the profession as a unique way of coping with its environment.”. The first three factors form the “philosophical foundation” for the science of caring, and the remaining seven come from that foundation. This activity will help frame the guiding principles of University of Phoenix curriculum through the application of theory-based thinking. Finally, in 1999, Watson assumed the nation’s first Murchison-Scoville Endowed Chair of Caring Science and currently is a distinguished professor of nursing. You may also like the following nursing theories study guides: With contributions by Wayne, G. (for Biography), Vera, M., Ramirez, Q. Nurseslabs.com is an education and nursing lifestyle website geared towards helping student nurses and registered nurses with knowledge for the progression and empowerment of their nursing careers. Human is viewed as greater than and different from the sum of his or her parts. Actual caring occasion involves actions and choices by the nurse and the individual. (2000). • Founder of the Center for Human Caring in Colorado. The jean watson theory 1. Watson’s theory has four major concepts: human being, health, environment/society, and nursing. In 2005, she took a sabbatical for a walking pilgrimage in the Spanish El Camino. The nursing process outlined in Watson’s model contains the same steps as the scientific research process: assessment, plan, intervention, and evaluation. Angelo aims to build a good foundation for aspiring nurses. After her graduation in 1961, Jean Watson married her husband, Douglas, and moved west to his native state of Colorado. Postmodern nursing and beyond. It is defined as a high level of overall physical, mental, and social functioning; a general adaptive-maintenance level of daily functioning; and the absence of illness, or the presence of efforts leading to the absence of illness. Caring Science helps us to embrace the positive energy that flows from an integrated mind, body and spirit and is mutually rewarding to both the patient and the nurse. Nursing Facilitator: Dr. Muhammad Dildar 2. These stress the rationality of utilizing this theory as a reason for the informative and educational program for nursing students. Watson was recognized as a Distinguished Nurse Scholar by New York University in 1998. In this paper, I will look at how Jean Watson’s theory aligns with my nursing values. Next are the lower-order psychophysical needs or functional needs, which include the need for activity, inactivity, and sexuality. According to Watson, caring, which is manifested in nursing, has existed in every society. Jean Watson: Dr. Jean Watson is one of the foremost nursing theorists of the 20th century as well as an educator, international speaker, researcher and author. • She earned a B.Sc. The moment of coming together in a caring occasion presents the two persons with the opportunity to decide how to be in the relationship – what to do with the moment. Jean Watson is a nursing theorist who formulated the theory of human caring and the ‘caritas’ processes in support of this theory. Both are fully present in the moment and feel a union with the other; they share a phenomenal field that becomes part of the life story of both. Instead, it’s transmitted by the culture of the nursing profession as a unique way of coping with its environment. Some have suggested that it takes too much time to incorporate the Caritas into practice, and some note that Watson’s personal growth emphasis is a quality “that while appealing to some may not appeal to others.”. Caring science as a sacred science. From carative factors to clinical caritas processes. The assessment includes observation, identification, and review of the problem, as well as the formation of a hypothesis. B. (2005). All Rights Reserved, Nursing Theories and a Philosophy of Nursing, A Statistical Look at Patient-Centered Care, Nemours Brings Nursing Opportunities to Central Florida, How Have the Sequester Cuts Affected Nursing and Health Care, Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring, Revised Edition, Human Caring Science: A Theory of Nursing, Second Edition (Watson, Nursing: Human Science and Human Care), Nursing: Human Science And Human Care (Watson, Nursing: Human Science and Human Care), Assessing and Measuring Caring in Nursing and Health Science: Second Edition (Watson, Assessing and Measuring Caring in Nursing and Health Science), Creating a Caring Science Curriculum: An Emancipatory Pedagogy for Nursing, Toward a Caring Curriculum: A New Pedagogy for Nursing, Measuring Caring: International Research on Caritas as Healing, The Ethics of Care and the Ethics of Cure: Synthesis in Chronicity, Linking Medical Care and Community Services: Practical Models for Bridging the Gap, The Caritas Path to Peace: A Guidebook for Creating World Peace with Caring, Love, and Compassion (Volume 1), Watson’s Philosophy and Science of Caring. Nursing: The philosophy and science of caring. The first three factors form the “philosophical foundation” for the science of caring, and the remaining seven come from that foundation. Her theory stresses humanistic aspects of nursing as they intertwine with scientific knowledge and nursing practice. This book provides all the essential research tools for assessing and measuring caring for those in the caring professions. Martin, L. S. (1991). During her deanship, she was instrumental in the development of a post-baccalaureate nursing curriculum in human caring, health, and healing that led to a Nursing Doctorate (ND), a professional clinical doctoral degree that in 2005 became the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degree. At the center, Watson and others sponsor clinical, educational, and community scholarship activities and projects in human caring. The first three carative factors are the “philosophical foundation” for the science of caring, while the remaining seven derive from that foundation. (1999). Watson’s fifth book describes her personal journey to enhance understanding about caring science, spiritual practice, the concept and practice of care, and caring-healing work. And in 2008, Watson created a non-profit foundation: Watson Caring Science Institute, to further the work of Caring Science in the world. The theory is focused on “the centrality of human caring and on the caring-to-caring transpersonal relationship and its healing potential for both the one who is caring and the one who is being cared for” (Watson, 1996). In 1997, the NLN awarded her an honorary lifetime certificate as a holistic nurse.
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