The schematic diagram of the back process steam turbine with cogeneration system is shown in figure 2. Heii power plant engineers today we are discussed about a very important topic named “Steam turbine bearings and their function ” into steam turbine operation . We will also discuss here what is turbine, main parts of the turbine and the working principle of a turbine. The seal further includes a conical backplate that partially supports the set of bristles. The steam turbine of 51.5 MW power output, turbine condenser, generator and turbine controls have been ordered. Block diagram of nonreheat-type turbine. Reaction type. Turbine steam engines are the next evolutionary step of piston machines. Isentropic efficiency represents an ideal isentropic process between actual input state and an assumed hypothetical output state, whereas exergy efficiency represents an ideal reversible process between actual input state and an actual output state. This leads to the need for a more robust and more complex blade design incorporating the use of welded components (called diaphragms) which provide a seal between the outer wall and the rotor assembly to minimise pressure loss. A turbine is a work producing device. Answers: Impulse type. However, the turbine is more costly that a back pressure or conventional condensing steam turbine. In condensing steam turbines, the condenser vacuum temperature will also increase if the removal of heat from the condenser is reduced. The variation in load during the operation of a steam turbine can have a significant impact on its performance. They are basically classified into two types. A rigorous understanding of the physics involved is therefore necessary for successful design of rotating brush seals. I want to know what is steam extraction from turbines? 1. The choice between backpressure turbine and extraction-condensing turbine depends mainly on the quantities of power and heat, quality of heat, and economic factors. The steam turbine is designed with three distinct operating regimes: constant pressure, true sliding pressure, and modified sliding pressure. Low condenser vacuum. Thus a steam turbine could be viewed as a complex series of windmill-like arrangements, all assembled on the same shaft. The exergy efficiency of a turbine can be expressed as. It can be categorized into three types. A dynamic pressure on the blades is produced by this high-velocity steam, in which the shaft and blades both start to rotate in the same direction. The condensing steam turbine is a conventional steam turbine in which the steam exiting the turbine exhaust is condensed to provide the maximum energy capture. 5.2). 4.6). Thermal efficiency of a steam turbine is usually higher than that of a reciprocating engine. Steam Turbine Working and Types. – if you need to construct 3 rooms for your need in your house, and suddenly you realise that you can make extra 2 rooms for optimized increased construction cost for tenants and will make income out of it . 3. The generated power is directly proportional to the amount and pressure and temperature of the steam , but limitation is the metallurgy of the blades and casing of turbine and the rating of alternator.This means we cannot go beyond the rated capacity of turbine and alternator due to metallurgy limitations. The first outlet extracts the steam with intermediate pressure for the feeding of the heating process while the second outlet extracts the remaining steam with low-pressure steam for the condensation. The operation of steam turbines suffers from various losses. In backpressure cogeneration plants, there is no need for large cooling towers. In a rotating brush seal, as shown in Fig. By continuing to use this site, you agree to our use of cookies. Variable speed requirements make this turbine design well suited to compressor drive use as a wide variety of speed ranges can be supplied. The prevalent type in the United States is the massive concrete foundation; A few of the steel foundations have been installed. This class of steam turbine can be direct coupled to the compressor or coupled through a speed increasing gear to meet compressor speed requirements. Debasish Mondal, ... Aparajita Sengupta, in Power System Small Signal Stability Analysis and Control, 2014. However, a rotating brush seal is attached to the rotor, not the stator. The actual dynamics of course greatly depends on the type of turbine used. To maximise the use of the steam generated, modern plants typically combine high pressure (HP), intermediate pressure (IP) and low pressure (LP) turbines. In this type of plant heat energy is exploited first, then the remaining heat is used to produce steam for electricity generation. The isentropic efficiency is defined as the ratio of actual power to the isentropic power or ideal power: where h2s is the enthalpy of the fluid at the turbine outlet if the process was isentropic. 1. It is mainly used in power plant industries to generate electric power. The first on is known as hydraulic turbine, second one is gas turbine and the last one is steam turbine. There is … 2) Reaction Steam Turbine This type of steam turbine CHP plant will normally operate with relatively constant heat demand because there is no way of varying the steam output from the turbine exhaust while maintaining optimum operating conditions. This exhaust steam is used either to provide heat for an industrial process or to produce hot water. Lubrication of the steam turbine is required to minimize the rotating friction in the bearings as well as to cool the bearing surfaces. Steam turbines are available in a wide range of sizes making it relatively simple to match a turbine to a particular CHP application. The cycle of start-up and shut-down operations has implications for the lifetime of the plant since some of the components may prematurely fail due to thermo-mechanical fatigue. I want to know can we use from an extraction turbine as an admission to consumption of additional steam ? Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The advantage of rotor teeth is that an abradable coating can be reliably applied to the stationary component to allow for a tight clearance and to avoid mushrooming of the seal teeth upon rubbing. Turbine governor block diagram. High steam temperature may damage turbine as the metallurgy of the turbine is designed for a particular temperature. This is equivalent to picking KSGKT = 1. The energy efficiency of an adiabatic turbine can be defined based on useful output and required input approach. Steam turbine governing is the procedure of controlling the flow rate of steam to a steam turbine so as to maintain its speed of rotation as constant. Everything thing you nee to know about turbines and renewal energy. Two types of steam turbines must be considered, condensing and noncondensing. Very tight clearance could impose a challenge to turbine assembly and turning gear start-up. pressure and temperature. In a condensing steam turbine, the maximum amount of energy is extracted from the steam, because there is very high enthalpy difference between the initial (e.g. Four different types of rotor construction have been used on large turbine-generator units on the CEGB system: The monobloc or integral rotor, in which the wheels and shaft are formed from a single-piece forging (Fig 1.104 (a)). 20.2 is simple impulse turbine or De-Laval turbine. Extraction Steam Turbine Figure 1: Extraction (condensing) steam turbine The extraction turbine… 2. Types of Steam Turbines. Nozzle Control Governing Of Steam Turbine. Also, the set of bristles is angled substantially axially, not mainly circumferentially, with respect to the rotating axis. Steam turbines traditionally have down (or bottom) exhaust, with the condenser located below the steam turbine. The power from extraction turbine is generated as an advantage of the generated steam, though our prime use of steam is for processes. what is the effect of back pressure on turbine design and performance???? The velocity of steam is reduced as it moves over the moving blades. Reducing steam inlet temperature reduces the enthalpy, which is a function of both the inlet temperature and pressure. What are the two basic types of steam turbines? The extraction points of steam from the turbine could be more than one, depending on the temperature levels of heat required by the processes. i had a few queries with respect to the CHP process: 1) With extraction, fuel consumption will be higher as compared to power only system. An increase of about 100 °F (55 °C) will reduce the steam consumption by about 6.6% in a condensing steam turbine and 8.8% in a back pressure turbine. Cylinder and exhaust arrangements 3. Boyce, in Combined Cycle Systems for Near-Zero Emission Power Generation, 2012. At this temperature, efficiency will increase by 0.6% for a condensing steam turbine and 0.65% for a back pressure turbine. X. Zheng, in Advances in Steam Turbines for Modern Power Plants, 2017. Condensing steam turbines are most commonly found in thermal power plants. Depending on their working pressures, size, construction and many other parameters, there are two basic types of steam turbines. For maintenance access, provision must be made to dismantle the acoustic hood and remove half the turbine casing and the rotor. Further, if the steam turbine is enclosed in a building, then the building height is also reduced, further lowering civil/ structural costs. A dynamic pressure on the blades is produced by this high-velocity steam, in which the shaft and blades both start to rotate in the same direction. Rutger Botermans, Peter Smith, in Advanced Piping Design, 2008. Steam Turbines 1. Figure 5.1. We love renewable energy and we love to bring news on turbines! I wouldn’t mind publishing a post or elaborating on some of the subjects you write regarding here. Dipak K. Sarkar, in Thermal Power Plant, 2015. To retain the design efficiency the steam inlet pressure should be maintained. Figure 3.5. Is any turbine like impulse-reaction turbine.. This makes for a flexible plant in which power and heat can be balanced depending upon the heat demand. Lubrication of the steam turbine is required to minimize the rotating friction in the bearings as well as to cool the bearing surfaces. But steam turbines are installed not only in power plants. it is a type of heat engine machine. That’s what we’re about. The thermal load of this turbine defines the flow of steam mass which makes it difficult to change the output value. The conical backplate and the fixed end of the set of bristles can be inserted into a groove, and attached to the rotor through calking, grub screws, a dovetail, or a combination of these methods. If any what’s its working principle, Your email address will not be published. A steam turbine is a constant volume machine. In condensing or exhaust back pressure steam turbines, the increase of this back pressure will reduce the efficiency and increase the steam consumption where all other operating parameters remain constant. In order to match steam production to heat demand, there are three types of steam turbine in common use for CHP plants. Turbine Classification In order to better understand turbine operation, five basic classifications are discussed. Side exhaust is also available from some suppliers for steam turbines up to 450 MW. Mechanical drive steam turbines are typically multistage units and can be either straight through flow or extraction/induction designs. Steam Turbine Working and Types. The low-pressure steam discharge line has a large bore; a bellow most likely is required in the line, which must join the top of the header. The turbine requires a similar lube oil console to that provided for the compressor. A steam turbine functions through heating water to very high temperatures until it is changed into steam, after that the steam energy can be used for rotating the blades within a turbine to generate mechanical otherwise rotating energy. The noncondensing type of steam turbine uses high-pressure steam and exhausts a lower-pressure steam to a header. Turbines are enclosed in casings or cylinders. The output of this turbine can’t be regulated as it does not allow changing the pressure and temperature of steam in the turbine, therefore, it works best with the constant load. Both of these steam turbine types have their own operating schemes and benefits which are described here in detail. The turbine efficiency quantifies various losses such as the isentropic losses, the heat losses from the turbine, and the friction losses. All steam turbines can be classified into different types based on the number of cylinders, general flow, means of heat supply, Operating principle and direction of flow. For countries such as the United States, steam turbines play a major role in the production of electricity. Turbine steam inlet pressure is a major parameter affecting turbine performance. for any process if we need to generate steam ,it is advantageous to increase the capital and operation cost to generate steam of higher pressure and temperature as needed in the process. Thus a steam turbine could be viewed as a complex series of windmill-like arrangements, all assembled on the same shaft. Hence, the energy efficiency of a turbine is written as follows: Similarly, the useful exergy output is the mechanical (shaft) work produced whereas the required input is the exergy change of stream (gas or steam) at the inlet and outlet, that is the decrease in the exergy of the stream (gas or steam) as it flows through the turbine. we need extraction steam for processes. It is important to note that isentropic efficiency and exergy efficiency are different definitions. 1. In this article, we will learn about different types of turbine. The fluid may be either water or gas or steam according to the availability. Instead, seal teeth are often attached to the rotor or machined as an integral part of the rotor to form a seal. In addition to saving space on the stator, a benefit of the rotating brush seal is that the heat generated by the brush seal will have less impact on rotor bowing than conventional brush seals would, because the bristle tips slide on a stationary component. Fig. Schematic of a back-pressure steam turbine. The relation between nozzle-box pressure and stage pressures vs. load is linear in nature. The exhaust steam from the steam engine or steam turbine enters at the top of a series of pipes outside of which a film of cold water is falling. Turbine Steam Machine. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Since the steam turbine is a rotary heat engine, it is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical generator. Steam turbines may be classified into different categories depending on their construction, working pressures, size and many other parameters. A 10% increase in steam pressure will reduce the steam consumption by about 1% in a condensing steam turbine and by about 4% in a back pressure steam turbine. For countries such as the United States, steam turbines play a major role in the production of electricity. Production of power is achieved by expanding a fluid. In summary, condensing steam turbines are more efficient and produce more power than back pressure steam turbines. it will decrease the efficiency of turbine. A steam turbine is a device that is used to convert the high pressure of the steam into the rotation of an axis that provides power output (shaft). A high enthalpy flow enters the turbine; work is produced, and a lower enthalpy flow exits the turbine. Steam turbines may be classified into different categories depending on their construction, working pressures, size and many other parameters. Surface condensers often are at grade, mounted directly below the compressors turbine. It should be noted that some of these savings are partially offset by the increased cost of main steam and cold/hot reheat piping, since lowering the pedestal increases the vertical length of this piping. 2.1.1 Periodically the operating limit necessitates a step change in material selection in order to accommodate new design parameters, hence new alloys have been developed and introduced regularly since the mid-20th century. Hello Sir I personally thanking you that there is lot useful stuff and basic of turbine, I am a student of Master in Engineering and want to know more about steam turbine as I want to further work on it. However, it does open up application space for brush seals in turbomachinery, including couter-rotation shaft sealing in aviation engines and interstages in gas turbines. What is the operating principle of an impulse turbine? These three are called a back pressure steam turbine, an extraction steam turbine and a condensing steam turbine. There are two general types of steam turbine designs. Throttle Governing Of Steam Turbine. In rotating brush seals, additional design parameters, such as the inclination of the bristles in two different planes, as well as the rotor speed, make these interactions more complex. This heating of the rotor can cause the rotor to bow and further increase undesirable nonuniform heating. Both of these steam turbine types have their own operating schemes and benefits which are described here in detail. for eg. The impulse stage is best suited for high-pressure region and for small steam quantities. It is costly turbine with lots of auxiliary components. through this we can generate power as a by-product at very optimized cost. Figure 2: Non-Condensing (Back-Pressure) Steam Turbine, Dear sir, i want basic know how about steam turbine, i want 2 know the biggest turbine in world and what turbine are use too much in india…, Sir i need some details, how much velocity required for rotating for this turbine anda head leangth and which types of generator used. Bypass Governing Of Steam Turbine. The different types of steam turbine governor of are: 1. Provision should be considered to bleed warming steam into turbines and other steam drivers.
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