Therefore, our objective was to use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the progression of leaf abscission in L. maackii at the cellular level. Habit and Form. The tips of the leaves are acuminate. Enter search terms. Wallingford, UK: CABI, EDDMapS, 2013. Forest colonization and developmental growth of the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii. > 0°C, wet all year, Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. Previous work has shown extensive dieback of honeysuckle in the region, coupled with the appearance of the native fungal pathogen, honeysuckle leaf blight (Insolibasidium deformans). WeedUS - Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States, West Virginia Invasive Species Strategic Plan and Volunteer Guidelines 2014, West Virginia Native Plant Society, Flora West Virginia Project, and West Virginia Curatorial Database System, September 3, 1999, Wisconsin's Invasive species rule – NR 40. Its dense growth competes with woody and herbaceous plants (Swearingen et al., 2010). Creating gaps by removing L. maackii shrubs can increase native generalist species establishment, but can also increase establishment of some other invasive species (Luken et al., 1997). In Japan, L. maackii is described as rare, occurring along the edges of montane deciduous forests and sometimes on calcareous rocks in northern and central Honshu (Flora of Japan, 2013). Allelopathy Journal, 29(1):63-76, Collier MH, Vankat JL, Hughes MR, 2002. Expand. Landscape structure and spread of the exotic shrub Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) in Southwestern Ohio forests. 2019-05-10 16 10 48 Amur Honeysuckle blooming along a walking path in the Franklin Farm section of Oak Hill, Fairfax County, Virginia.jpg 4,032 × 3,024; 6.7 MB (5.1-7.6 cm) long, 0.5-1.5 in. L. maackii appeared to facilitate pollination of an understory forest herb by flowering at the same time and attracting more pollinators. The genus Lonicera L. (syn. By the early 1900s L. maackii had received awards of merit from the British Royal Horticultural Society and plants were widely sold in European and North American nurseries (Luken and Thieret, 1996). Lonicera maackii Amur honeysuckle Ineffective, the leaves of this species turn a poor yellow green in fall. Most species of Lonicera are hardy twining climbers, with a minority of shrubby habit. American Midland Naturalist, 133(1):124-130, Luken JO, Kuddes LM, Tholemeier TC, 1997. Seeds germinate best in warm, humid, light conditions and are inhibited by dark (Luken and Goessling, 1995). Synonyms: Xylosteum maackii Rupr. Biological Invasions, 14(3):671-680. http://www.springerlink.com/content/u70h014705374u42/, Byrd Jr JD, Westbrooks R, 2013. In the USA L. maackii sale and transportation is prohibited in Massachusetts, Connecticut and Vermont (USDA-NRCS, 2013). it is a human commensal), Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. The leaves are dark green above and lighter on the lower surface. The bark is a light grayish brown on mature stems. It has a very bushy growth form and the leaves are entire (smooth margins, no teeth) and opposite. Seasonal effects of four control methods on the invasive Morrow's honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowii) and initial responses of understory plants in a Southwestern Pennsylvania old field. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. See below This plant is an invasive species in North Carolina Description. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) is an important invasive plant species in the Ohio River Valley. Applied Vegetation Science, 10(1):3-14. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1658/1402-2001%282007%2910%5B3%3AADSOFO%5D2.0.CO%3B2, Herman DE, Stange CM, Quam VC, 2013. CABI is a registered EU trademark. http://www.uwgb.edu/biodiversity/herbarium/invasive_species/lonmaa01.htm, GBIF, 2013. L. maackii is diploid (Janaki and Saunders, 1952) with a chromosome count of 2n=18 (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014). Noxious Weeds. Lonicera maackii shrubs have been estimated to utilize ~10% of Identification of Amur Honeysuckle. Deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that generally grow 2-3 m tall (approx. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. 2010. The USDA Soil Conservation Service promoted several cultivars of L. maackii from the 1960s to the 1980s for use in soil stabilization, reclamation and wildlife habitat improvement projects across the USA (Luken and Thieret, 1996). Fewless G, 2013. L. maackii was shown to indirectly affect trees by increasing seed predation of tree seeds by white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) compared to plots where L. maackii had been removed (Meiners, 2007). Extracts of the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii increase mortality and alter behavior of amphibian larvae. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 1994. The tips of the leaves are acuminate. L. maackii branches with leaves were regularly collected in Beijing, China over the 2-month period in which leaves abscise, and examined with SEM. Lonicera maackii. Plants are self-incompatible (Deering and Vankat, 1999). Overview Other names for this plant include: Common names: bush honeysuckle, late honeysuckle, Maak's honeysuckle. The bark of older branches is gray with flat scaly ridges and narrow grooves. Two varieties or forms are sometimes listed: L. maackii var. a Two shrubs growing at the Beijing Vocational College of Agriculture, photographed 1 … Similar species: Lonicera maackii is the only Lonicera shrub having flower stalks shorter than the leaf stalks. L. maackii was heavily promoted and planted from the 1960s to the 1980s in the USA, but its popularity has since declined. Maryland Department of Natural Resources Policy: Restriction on Planting Exotic Invasive Plants, National Park Service, Mid-Atlantic Exotic Plant Management Team Invasive Plant List, National Park Service, National Capital Region Exotic Plant Management Team Invasive Plant List, New Hampshire Prohibited Invasive Species, New Jersey Invasive Species Strike Team 2017 Invasive Species List, New York Regulated and Prohibited Invasive Species - Prohibited, Non-Native Invasive Plants of Arlington County, Virginia, Non-Native Invasive Plants of the City of Alexandria, Virginia, Nonnative Invasive Species in Southern Forest and Grassland Ecosystems, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Invasive Plants. http://www.gbif.org/species. Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. Biological invasions 18; Invasive plant science and management 11; The American midland naturalist 8; The journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 7; Natural areas journal 6; more Journal » Publication Year. The flowers are white (turning yellow with age) and the fruits are red and numerous. Specimens collected along the Amur River in Manchuria, northeast China, by plant explorer Richard Maack provided the first specimens described by taxonomist F. von Herder in 1864 (Luken and Thieret, 1996). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA. The PLANTS Database. Lonicera maackii is a woody perennial shrub that can grow up to 16.5 ft. (5 m) in height. Beijing, China. American Midland Naturalist, 141(1):43-50, EDDMapS, 2013. Radial and basal growth of existing trees declined in forests invaded by L. maackii (Hartman and McCarthy, 2007). Home and Garden Information Center, Home and Garden Mimeo HG88. The leaves are dark green above and lighter on the lower surface. Madison, Wisconsin. Lonicera maackii is the scientific name of Amur Honeysuckle. Foliage The oppositely arranged leaves are ovate to lance-ovate in shape and measure 1.3-3.3 in. Mechanicsburg, PA, USA: Stackpole Books, 518 pp, Lieurance D, Cipollini D, 2012. Contents. Flowers are pollinated by honey bees and small native bees in the USA (Goodell et al., 2010). Stems can be cut and herbicide applied to the cut stem, or plants can be sprayed with a foliar spray of herbicide (Love and Anderson, 2009). Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://agriculture.vermont.gov/sites/ag/files/pdf/plant_protection_weed_management/noxious_weeds/NoxiousWeedsQuarantine.pdf. shrub Lonicera maackii appears to benefit from an absence of arthropod herbivores in North America. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Lonicera maackii is a woody perennial shrub that can grow up to 16.5 ft. (5 m) in height. In a study in Ohio, USA, populations began to increase rapidly about 10 years after initial establishment. Plant invaders of mid-Atlantic natural areas. Vermont, USA: Vermont Department of Agriculture. The species was first named Xylosteum maackii by Ruprecht in 1857, but was renamed Lonicera maackii by Maximowicz in 1859 (Flora of Japan, 2013). Lonicera maackii generally experiences much lower amounts of arthropod herbivory in the field than the level imposed here (3 % observed vs. 50 % imposed), but can occasionally receive higher amounts of herbivory. On NameThatPlant.net, plants are shown in different seasons (not just in flower), and you can hear Latin … http://www.uwgb.edu/biodiversity/herbarium/invasive_species/lonmaa01.htm, GBIF, 2013. Foliage The oppositely arranged leaves are ovate to lance-ovate in shape and measure 1.3-3.3 in. Caprifolium Mill., Metalonicera M. Wang & A. G. Gu, Xylosteum Mill., family Caprifoliaceae) includes some 200 species of erect shrubs and twining climbers native to North America (south to Mexico) and Eurasia (south to North Africa, the Himalaya, Java, and the Philippines). Lonicera maackii is an introduced species in Wisconsin and it has become invasive in our native communities. Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Lonicera maackii (Amur Honeysuckle or Bush Honeysuckle) is a species of honeysuckle in the family Caprifoliaceae, native to temperate Asia in northern and western China (south to Yunnan), Mongolia, Japan (central and northern Honshū, rare), Korea, and southeastern Russia (Primorsky Krai).It is listed as an endangered species in Japan. Electronic Plant Information Centre (ePIC)., Kew, Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. (3.5-8.5 cm) long. Pollen limitation and local habitat-dependent pollinator interactions in the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii. The flowers are white (turning yellow with age) and the fruits are red and numerous. Herder (Caprifoliaceae), on the growth and survival of native tree seedlings. Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council - Severe Threat, Maryland Code and Regulations of Invasive Plants. Invasive Plants of Wisconsin. The first record of naturalized L. maackii in the USA came from the Morton Arboretum, outside of Chicago, Illinois, in the 1920s. Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list. Foliage The oppositely arranged leaves are ovate to lance-ovate in shape and measure 1.3-3.3 in. The leaves are dark green above and lighter on the lower surface. It prefers well-drained soils, but grows along lakes and rivers and can tolerate occasional flooding. http://www.itis.gov/, Janaki EK, Saunders B, 1952. It also suggests that L. maackii may exude allelopathic compounds from its leaves or roots that inhibit germination and/or growth of species that may have persisted at these sites. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. It does particularly well on calcareous soils. Twenty-five ways to remove Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii). Lonicera maackii, commonly called Amur honeysuckle or bush honeysuckle, is native to Manchuria, Japan, Korea and China. It was first grown in North America in 1896 at the Dominion Arboretum in Ottowa, Canada, from seeds sent from Germany. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science, 102(1/2):21-32, Smith DG, 2013. In October 2008, leaves were sampled Sometimes semi evergreen retaining its light green, oval leaves until the hard frosts. NameThatPlant.net currently features 3816 plants and 23,855 images. Biological Invasions, 15(8):1713-1724. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-012-0402-y, Love JP, Anderson JT, 2009. It has a very bushy growth form and the leaves are entire (smooth margins, no teeth) and opposite. Effects of the exotic invasive shrub Lonicera maackii on the survival and fecundity of three species of native annuals. ©2020 : Gary J. Kling, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign : Transpiration by L. maackii in wetland sites could reduce water in ephemeral ponds and streams, adversely affecting amphibians and other organisms that depend on ephemeral wetlands (Boyce et al., 2011). Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System. Herder. Some seeds require a brief period of warm or cold stratification to overcome dormancy (Hidayati et al., 2000). Washington, D.C, USA: National Park Service and US Fish and Wildlife Service, 168, Texas Invasives, 2013. Like many honeysuckles, this species leafs out very early. 57 (3), 2-12. Natural Areas Journal, 33(1):78-80. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3375/043.033.0109, Christopher CC, Cameron GN, 2012. Detecting an invasive shrub in a deciduous forest understory using late-fall Landsat sensor imagery. The leaves are opposite, simple oval, 1–10 cm long; most are deciduous but some are evergreen. Lonicera maackii var. Foliage The oppositely arranged leaves are ovate to lance-ovate in shape and measure 1.3-3.3 in. Landsat and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) imaging have been used in late autumn to determine areas with high and low cover of L. maackii (Resasco et al., 2007). Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Lonicera maackii . Lonicera maackii is a woody perennial shrub that can grow up to 16.5 ft. (5 m) in height. The leaves are dark green above and lighter on the lower surface. 1 Habitat and general morphology of Lonicera maackii plants. The leaves have a rounded base, acuminate apex and are pubescent on the veins only. Plants have higher photosynthetic efficiency under higher light levels (Luken et al., 1995). (1.3-3.8 cm) wide, accuminate and usually persist into winter. Young branches and twigs are more brown, smooth-textured, and pubescent. The leaves are dark green above and lighter on the lower surface. L. maackii var. Lonicera maackii (Amur Honeysuckle) Plant Info; Also known as: Bush Honeysuckle: Genus: Lonicera: Family: Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle) Life cycle: perennial woody: Origin: Asia: Status: Invasive - ERADICATE! Leaves. (4) Fruit/Seed Seed Science Research, 10(4):459-469, Hutchinson TF, Vankat JL, 1998. Little information is available on possible biological control agents for L. maackii. Diminished plant richness and abundance below Lonicera maackii, an invasive shrub. Lonicera maackii is a woody perennial shrub that can grow up to 16.5 ft. (5 m) in height. The overall shape of a mature plant is like a multi-trunk umbrella. Delaware Invasive Species Council Invasive Species List, Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council - Category 2. Leaves contain phenolic compounds including apigenin and chlorogenic acid (Cipollini et al., 2008). Lonicera maackii is an introduced species in Wisconsin and it has become invasive in our native communities. Native tree species perform better after the removal of L. maackii, but success depends on microclimates and the particular tree species (Hartman and McCarthy, 2004). http://www.cincinnatibirds.com/wildones/, McEwan RW, Birchfield MK, Schoergendorfer A, Arthur MA, 2009. Exotic Lonicera species both escape and resist specialist and generalist herbivores in the introduced range in North America. Some species (including Lonicera hildebrandiana from the Himalayan foothills and L. etrusca from the Mediterranean) are tender and can only be grown outside in subtropical zones. L. involucrata can grow up to 10’ tall and has pointed leaves, but its leaves are hairy on the underside while the leaves of Amur honeysuckle have hair only along the veins. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). In its native range, L. maackii is found in eastern China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia and far eastern Russia (eFloras, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2014). Canadian Field-Naturalist, 87:54-55, Resasco J, Hale AN, Henry MC, Gorchov DL, 2007. For more information, . Difficult to tell apart from other species of bush honeysuckles (exotic). al., 2008; Watling et. http://plants.usda.gov/, Vermont Department of Agriculture, 2013. In an open area, cutting shrubs in spring resulted in the best recovery of native vegetation (Love and Anderson, 2009). Seedling distribution and potential persistence of the exotic shrub Lonicera maackii in fragmented forests. We also note that the cortex of L. maackii leaves play a role in abscission, as it develops an “abaxial gap” at the Fig. Oppositely arranged on the stem, egg-shaped, short-stalked and lightly hairy; range in size from 3-8 cm long (approx. (3.5-8.5 cm) long. Lonicera maackii Honeysuckle family (Caprifoliaceae) Description: This shrub is up to 20' tall, 15' across, and abundantly branched. It is important to remove or kill the crown of the plant (McCullough, 2009). Compendium record. In October 2008, leaves were sampled from shrubs in forest interior and edge habitat from 8 sites in Ohio. Wisconsin Dept. USA: The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. Pronunciation: lon-ISS-er-a MAK-e-i . The leaves are dark green above and lighter on the lower surface. Although it will grow in full shade, L. maackii prefers woodland edges and open areas. American Midland Naturalist, 147(1):60-71, Deering RH, Vankat JL, 1999. Delaware Wildflowers. A deciduous shrub 10 to 15 ft high, with wide-spreading branches, often arranged in a flat, distichous manner; young shoots downy. Pringle JS, 1973. American Midland Naturalist, 144(1):36-50, Hartman KM, McCarthy BC, 2004. http://www.tropicos.org/, Owen HR, McDonnell AL, Mounteer AM, Todd BL, 2005. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. The white flowers are found in erect pairs that are on peduncles shorter than the petioles. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year), Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. and Lonicera are climbing shrubs. The tips of the leaves are acuminate. The invasive shrub, Lonicera maackii, reduces growth and fecundity of perennial forest herbs. 2012). Flora of Japan (2013) described L. maackii as rare, occurring along the edges of montane deciduous forests and sometimes on calcareous rocks in northern and central Honshu, Japan. Bush Honeysuckle. (4) Flowers Flowers are trumpet-shaped, and white-pinkish in color, situated in the leaf axils and fade to gold/yellow with age. Christchurch, New Zealand: Botany Division, DSIR, Zheng H, Wu Y, Ding J, Binion D, Fu W, Reardon R, 2006. Oecologia, 139(3):359-375, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. L. maackii is critically endangered in parts of its native range in Japan.